As of 2009, the state has an estimated population of 24,782,406, an increase of 1.97% from the prior year and 16.1% since the year 2000. The state'srate of natural increase (births and deaths) since the last census was 1,389,275 people, immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 801,576 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 451,910 people. As of 2004, the state had 3.5 million foreign-born residents (15.6 percent of the state population), of which an estimated 1.2 million are illegal aliens. Texas from 2000–2006 had the fastest growing illegal immigration rate in the nation. In 2010, illegal aliens constituted an estimated 6.0% of the population. This was the fifth highest percentage of any state in the country.
Texas's population density is 34.8 persons/km2 which is slightly higher than the average population density of the US as a whole, at 31 persons/km2. In contrast, while Texas and France are similarly sized geographically, the European country has a population density of 116 persons/km2.
Two-thirds of all Texans live in a major metropolitan area such as Houston. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area is the largest in Texas. While Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth largest city in the United States, the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area is considerably larger than that of Houston.
Racial groups and ethnic origins
According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, the racial and ethnic composition of Texas was the following:
- White: 71.4% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 47.8%)
- Black or African American: 11.5%
- Native American: 0.5%
- Asian: 3.4%
- Pacific Islander: 0.1%
- Some other race: 11.3%
- Two or more races: 1.9%
- Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 35.9%
White Americans are the racial majority in Texas. However, non-Hispanic whites represent roughly 48% of the population; therefore, Texas is a minority-majority state. Just over 17,020,000 Texans are white (both non-Hispanic and Hispanic), and roughly 11.4 million are non-Hispanic whites. German, Irish, and English Americans are the three largest European ancestry groups in Texas. German Americans make up 11.3% of the population, and number over 2.7 million members. Irish Americans make up 8.2% of the population, and number over 1.9 million members. English Americans make up 7.7% of the population, and number over 1.8 million members. There are roughly 600,000 French Americans and 472,000 Italian Americans residing in Texas; these two ethnic groups make up 2.5% and 2.0% of the population respectively.
Black Americans are the largest racial minority in Texas. Blacks of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin make up 11.5% of the population; blacks of non-Hispanic origin form 11.3% of the populace. Black Americans of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin number at roughly 2.7 million individuals.
Native Americans are a smaller minority in the state. Native Americans make up 0.5% of Texas' population, and number over 118,000 individuals. Native Americans of non-Hispanic origin make up 0.3% of the population, and number over 75,000 individuals. Cherokee Indians made up 0.1% of the population, and numbered over 19,400 members. In contrast, only 583 were identified as Chippewa.
Asian Americans are a sizable minority group in Texas. Americans of Asian descent form 3.4% of the population, with those of non-Hispanic descent making up 3.3% of the populace. Altogether, they number over 808,000 individuals. Non-Hispanic Asians number over 795,000. Just over 200,000 Indians make Texas their home. Texas is also home to over 187,000 Vietnamese and 136,000 Chinese. In addition to 92,000 Filipinos and 62,000 Koreans, there are 18,000 Japanese Americans living in the state. Lastly, over 111,000 people are of other Asian ancestry groups, such as Cambodian, Thai, and Hmong.
Americans with origins from the Pacific are the smallest minority in Texas. According to the survey, only 18,000 Texans are Pacific Islanders; 16,400 are of non-Hispanic descent. There are roughly 5,400 Native Hawaiians, 5,300 Guamanians, and 6,400 people from other groups. Samoan Americans were very scant; only 941 people were from this group.
Multiracial individuals are also a visible minority in Texas. People of multiracial heritage form 1.9% of the population, and number over 448,000 people. Almost 80,000 Texans claim European and African heritage, and make up 0.3% of the population. People of European and Native American heritage number over 108,800 (close to the number of Native Americans), and make up 0.5% of the population. People of European and Asian heritage number over 57,600, and form just 0.2% of the population. People of African and Native American heritage were even smaller in number (15,300), and make up just 0.1% of the total population.
Hispanics and Latinos are the second largest group in Texas after non-Hispanic European Americans. Over 8.5 million people claim Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. This group forms 36% of Texas' population. People of Mexican descent alone number over 7.3 million, and make up 30.7% of the population. Over 104,000 Puerto Ricans live in the state. Roughly 38,000 Cubans reside in the state. Over 1.1 million people (4.7% of the population) are of varying Hispanic and Latino ancestries, such as Costa Rican, Venezuelan, and Argentine.
German descendants inhabit much of central and southeast-central Texas. Over one-third of Texas residents are of Hispanic origin; while many have recently arrived, some Tejanos have ancestors with multi-generational ties to 18th century Texas. In addition to the descendants of the state's former slave population, many African American college graduates have come to the state for work recently in the New Great Migration. Recently, the Asian population in Texas has grown—primarily in Houston and Dallas. Other communities with a significantly growing Asian American population is in Austin, Corpus Christi, and the Sharyland area next McAllen, Texas. Currently, three federally recognized Native American tribes reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo.
Based on Census Bureau data released at Medio February 2011, for the first time in recent history, Texas' white population is below 50 percent (45 percent) and Hispanics grew to 38 percent. Between 2000 and 2010, the total population growth by 20.6 percent, but Hispanics growth by 65 percent, whereas non-Hispanic whites only grew by 4.2 percent.